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Awesome Vehicle Security and Car Hacking

🚗 A curated list of resources for learning about vehicle security and car hacking.

Here you can see meta information about this topic like the time we last updated this page, the original creator of the awesome list and a link to the original GitHub repository.

Last Update: Nov. 24, 2020, 9:05 p.m.

Thank you jaredthecoder & contributors
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jaredthecoder/awesome-vehicle-security

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Articles

Car enthusiast Kenny Kuchera illustrates just enough information to get you up and running. An excellent resource for first timers!

Chris Valasek's and Charlie Miller's pivotal research on hacking into Jeep's presented at DEFCON in 2015.

Overview of DEFCON 23 presentation on hacking into Tesla cars.

Overview of the RollJam rolling code exploitation device.

Chris Valasek and Charlie Miller release some of their tools and data for hacking into vehicles in an effort to get more people into vehicle security research.

via the SANS Reading Room, Currie's paper analyses the risks and perils of smart vehicle technology.

A whitepaper from Chris Valasek and IOActive on hacking your car when you don't have a lot of resources at your disposal.

Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek publish all tools, data, research notes, and papers for everyone for free

Craig Smith wrote a brief article on working with Metasploit’s HWBrige using ELM327 Bluetooth dongle

Texas A&M researchers develop intelligence system prototype.

Digging into an old ECU through an old protocol and disabling a 1997 Subaru Impreza's speed limiter.

Using VirtualBox and Kali Linux, you can start car hacking using completely free open-source software and tools, including can-utils, ICSim, ScanTool, Wireshark, and tcpdump

Presentations

A talk from BlackHat Asia 2015 that aims to enable the audience to "gain an understanding of automotive systems, but will also have the tools to attack them".

A talk and slides from Samy Kamkar's DEFCON 23/2015 talk that includes hacking garages, exploiting automotive mobile apps, and breaking rolling codes to unlock any vehicle with low cost tools.

Samy Kamkar, the prolific hacker behind the Samy worm on MySpace, explores hacking into vehicles with OnStar systems.

DEFCON 23 talk Chris Valasek and Charlie Miller give their now famous talk on hacking into a Jeep remotely and stopping it dead in its tracks.

DEFCON 21 talk by Chris Valasek and Charlie Miller on automotive networks.

DEFCON 24 talk by Jianhao Liu, Chen Yan, Wenyuan Xu

State of automotive hacking, policy, industry changes, etc. from I Am The Cavalry track at BSides Las Vegas, 2015.

State of automotive hacking, policy, industry changes, etc. from I Am The Cavalry track at BSides Las Vegas, 2016.

DEF CON 23 talk by Marc Rogers and Kevin Mahaffey on hacking a Tesla. Tesla Co-Founder and CTO, JB Straubel, joins them to thank them and present a challenge coin.

A web page with a long list of videos (40+) that are available online related to the topic of car hacking. From a 2007 DEF CON talk on modding engine ECUS and onwards (e.g. the 2017 Keen Security Tesla hack).

Black Hat talk by Jonathan Petit. Automated and connected vehicles are the next evolution in transportation and will improve safety, traffic efficiency and driving experience. This talk will be divided in two parts: 1) security of autonomous automated vehicles and 2) privacy of connected vehicles. 2015

Black Hat talk By Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek. Automotive security concerns have gone from the fringe to the mainstream with security researchers showing the susceptibility of the modern vehicle to local and remote attacks. Discussion of vehicle attack surfaces. 2014.

A presentation that discuesses different attack surfaces of a vehicle, then continues to describe an approach to car hacking along with tools needed to analyse and gather useful information.

Introduction to CAN hacking, and using a real car as an Xbox controller.

A guide on how to attack, hunt bugs or hack your IVI by Jay Turla which was presented at the Packet Hacking Village / Wall of Sheep during DEF CON 26.

Books

Free guide to hacking vehicles from 2014. You can also buy the book on Amazon here.

Latest version of the Car Hacker's handbook with updated information to hack your own vehicle and learning vehicle security. For a physical copy as well unlimited PDF, MOBI, and EPUB copies of the book, buy it at No Starch Press. Sections are available online here.

An older book from 2005, but still a comprehensive guide on CAN buses and networking in vehicles.

This book first introduced some basic knowledge of security for automotive R&D personnel, such as encryption and decryption, security authentication, digital signatures, common attack types, and methods. Then it introduced the working principles of some smart cars for security researchers, such as the automotive intranet. Protocol, network architecture, principle of X-By-Wire remote control system, common potential attack surface, etc. Finally, a detailed analysis of some actual automotive attack or security test cases, and defense analysis of the loopholes involved in the case during the analysis process.

This book guides you through prototyping CAN applications on Arduinos, which can help when working with CAN on your own car.

From 2003, this book fills in gaps in CAN literature and will educate you further on CAN networks and working with embedded systems.

This book discusses the security issues in a wide range of wireless devices and systems,Chapter 4 433/315MHz Communication (4.3 4.4 4.5 is about car keys Security)

Research Papers

Charlie Miller and Chris Valasek publish all tools, data, research notes, and papers for everyone for free

Courses

The Udacity open source self-driving car project

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Blogs

Blog created by Keen Security Lab of Tencent that posts research on car security.

Websites

Provides public access, documentation and tools necessary to understand today's modern vehicle systems.

Car Hacking exercises from DEFCON 24.

OWASP's project to secure IoT, from cars to medical devices and beyond.

Global grassroots (eg. volunteer) initiative focused on the intersection of security and human life/public safety issues, such as cars. Participation from security researchers, OEMs, Tier 1s, and many others. Published Automotive 5-Star Cyber Safety Framework.

Community of people interested in car hacking and connecting vehicles to the cloud.

A website for browsing and buying python-integrated cars having certain vehicular security features.

Conferences

European Automotive Cyber Security Summit](https://automotive-cyber-security.iqpc.de/) - Conference series dedicated to automotive cyber security involving many OEMs, Tier 1s, academics, consultants, etc.

Embedded security in cars. European event has run for over 10 years, and they now have US and Asia events.

Conference run by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), with participation from US and European OEMs, Tier 1s, and others.

Who to Follow

Podcasts

Excellent podcast covering all ranges of security, with some episodes focusing portions on vehicle security from cars to drones.

From the people at TrustedSec, leaders in Social Engineering, their episodes often go into recent vehicle vulnerabilities and exploits.

A podcast focusing on interviewing security experts about topics related to security.

Episodes

Software Engineering Daily did an amazing episode with Craig Smith, author of the Car Hacking Handbook (above), on hacking into vehicles.

Chris Valasek and Charlie Miller discuss with NPR how they were able to hack into vehicles.

Geoff Siskind paired up with Craig Smith, author of The Car Hacker’s Handbook, to show us just how easy – or not – it is to hack a car.

Miscellaneous

This repository contains reverse engineering results and resources for a few specific car models of a very specific car manufacturer. Please don't sue.

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Projects

We are a group of enthusiasts who want an interface to be able to talk to our cars remotely, perhaps add on-car displays (such as heads-up speed), and we want to have fun doing it.

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Open Source Car Control 💻🚗🙌

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Hardware

CAN-Bus Shield for Arduino based on Microchip MCP2515 or MCP2517FD CAN Controller

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Can bus monitoring tool based on arduino and can bus shield. Implements CAN ASCII/SLCAN protocol compatible with Lawicel CAN232/CANUSB. Can be used for monitoring low speed CAN (interior can bus of most cars, less than 500kbps). For higher speeds serial port can become a bottleneck in case data density is high.

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MIT

Arduino MKR WAN 1300, Arduino MKR Zero, Arduino Zero, Arduino Nano 33 BLE, Arduino Nano 33 IoT.

The Open Source Car Tool" designed to help you hack your car. You can buy one or make your own following the guide here.

Arduino-based OBD-II Bluetooth adapter kit has both an OBD-II device and a data logger, and it comes with GPS, an accelerometer and gyro, and temperature sensors.

The de facto chipset that's very cheap and can be used to connect to CAN devices.

Crafted by a well-known hardware hacker, this board is a general board that can be used for exploration of automotive networks.

Cheap USB to CAN connector that will register a device on linux that you can use to get data from a CAN network.

Expensive, but extremely versatile tools specifically designed for reversing CAN and other vehicle communication protocols.

Replaces expensive measurement tools such as oscilloscopes, signal generators, and spectrum analyzers. Red Pitaya has LabView and Matlab interfaces, and you can write your own tools and applications for it. It even supports extensions for things like Arduino shields.

A system for side-channel attacks, such as power analysis and clock glitching.

A Software Defined Radio peripheral capable of transmission or reception of radio signals from 1 MHz to 6 GHz. Designed to enable test and development of modern and next generation radio technologies.

Open source development kit that makes it easy to connect your car to the Internet. Lowest cost car hacking tool that is compatible with SocketCAN and can-utils. No OBD-II to serial cable required.

A tool for reverse-engineering and testing automotive systems. The CANBadger consists of both hardware and software. The main interface is a LPC1768/LPC1769 processor mounted on a custom PCB, which offers two CAN interfaces, SD Card, a blinky LED, some GPIO pins, power supply for peripherals and the ethernet port.

A platform giving security auditors to audit CAN devices. It can be used to block, forward or modify CAN frames on the fly autonomously as well as interactively.

General purpose Controller Area Network swiss army knife and development platform.

USBtin is a simple USB to CAN interface. It can monitor CAN busses and transmit CAN messages. USBtin implements the USB CDC class and creates a virtual comport on the host computer.

OpenXC is a combination of open source hardware and software that lets you extend your vehicle with custom applications and pluggable modules. It uses standard, well-known tools to open up a wealth of data from the vehicle to developers. Started by researchers at Ford, it works for all 2002 and newer MY vehicles (standard OBD-II interface). Researchers at Ford Motor Company joined up to create a standard way of creating aftermarket software and hardware for vehicles.

Macchina 2.0 is a complete overhaul of our 1.X generation of Macchina. The goals are still the same: Create an easy-to-use, fully-open, and super-compatible automotive interface.

PandwaRF is a pocket-sized, portable RF analysis tool operating the sub-1 GHz range. It allows the capture, analysis and re-transmission of RF via an Android device or a Linux PC. Capture any data in ASK/OOK/MSK/2-FSK/GFSK modulation from the 300-928 MHz band.

a tool to MITM CAN messages, allowing easy interaction with your car.

Applications

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CANToolz - framework for black-box CAN network analysis

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openpilot is an open source driver assistance system. openpilot performs the functions of Automated Lane Centering and Adaptive Cruise Control for over 85 supported car makes and models.

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3d
MIT

Automatic License Plate Recognition library

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2.26K
118d
AGPL-3.0

A PoC that the USB port is an attack surface for a Mazda car's infotainment system and how Mazda hacks are made

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GPL-3.0

CAN analysis - Use your car as a gamepad!

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Security analysis toolkit for proprietary car protocols

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A network protocol analyzer. ![Open-Source Software][oss icon] ![Freeware][freeware icon]

Java application for CAN bus diagnosis and monitoring.

An open source tuning suite for the Subaru engine control unit that lets you view and log data and tune the ECU.

Expensive, but extremely versatile tools specifically designed for reversing CAN and other vehicle communication protocols.

Works with the ELM327 to record data to a SQLite database for graphing purposes. It also supports reading GPS data. You can connect this to your car and have it map out using Google Maps KML data where you drive.

An Open Source tool to simulate, analyze and test data bus systems such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay.

Currently, OpenXC works with Python and Android, with libraries provided to get started.

The popular metasploit framework now supports Hardware Bridge sessions, that extend the framework's capabilites onto hardware devices such as socketcan and SDR radios.

All-in-one installer/uninstaller for many available Mazda MZD Infotainment System tweaks.

C

Linux-CAN / SocketCAN user space applications

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A virtual car. Because you wouldn't download a car, would you?

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CAN DBC to C (and CSV, JSON and XML) compiler using the mpc parser combinator library

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C++

High level Volkswagen CAN signaling protocol implementation. - DEPRECATED (moved to https://git.automotivelinux.org/apps/agl-service-can-high-level-viwi/)

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Apache-2.0

swiss army knife of Controller Area Networks (CAN) often used in cars and building automation, etc...

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BSD-2-Clause

Python

pyvit: Python Vehicle Interface Toolkit

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A friendly car security exploration tool for the CAN bus

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CAN of Fingers (c0f) creates passive fingerprints of Make and Model over CAN bus

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OBD-II serial module for reading engine data

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swiss army knife of Controller Area Networks (CAN) often used in cars and building automation, etc...

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BSD-2-Clause

Scapy: the Python-based interactive packet manipulation program & library. Supports Python 2 & Python 3.

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Python interface to various CAN implementations, including SocketCAN. Allows you to use Python 2.7.x or 3.3.x+ to communicate over CAN networks.

Go

CAN Device Vehicle Research Server (OpenGarages.org)

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Software for the CAN bus simulator on the Rasperry Pi

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JavaScript

NodeJS SocketCAN extension

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Companies and Jobs

Uber Advanced Technologies Center - info@uberatc.com.

Tesla hires security professionals for a variety of roles, particularly securing their vehicles.

Embedded security company building tools for reversing vehicles.

Rapid7 does work in information, computer, and embedded security.

Security consulting firm that does work on pentesting hardware and embedded systems.

Coordinated disclosure

on HackerOne - Coordinated disclosure submissions accepted

on Bugcrowd - Coordinated disclosure submissions accepted, paid bounties offered

on Bugcrowd - Coordinated disclosure submissions accepted, paid bounties offered

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